What is a rechargeable car, electric car type introduction

Today, we will introduce you to what rechargeable car and electric car types are.

In this era of rapid technological development, everything is slowly going into technology. Even the cars that are closely related to our lives have also come into the era of advanced technology, and you can find the functions and some artificial intelligence and other elements on the cars now, and even now there are electric cars.

What are battery-charged cars?

The main types of electric cars

Types of electric vehicles.

  • Pure electric vehicles (BEV)
  • Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)
  • Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCEV)

Pure Electric Vehicles

A pure electric vehicle is a vehicle that is powered by an electric motor.

The main difference (dissimilarity) between a pure electric vehicle, relative to a fuel car, lies in four major components,

  • the drive motor
  • the speed controller
  •  the power battery
  • the onboard charger

It consists of public ultra-fast charging stations as opposed to gas stations. The quality difference of pure electric vehicles depends on these four major components, and its value also depends on the quality of these four major components. The use of pure electric vehicles is also directly related to the selection and configuration of the four components.

The speed and start-up speed of pure electric vehicles depend on the power and performance of the drive motor, the range of the vehicle depend on the capacity of the on-board power battery, and the weight of the on-board power battery depends on what kind of power battery is used, such as lead-acid, zinc-carbon and lithium batteries. Their volume, specific gravity, specific power, specific energy, and cycle life are different. This depends on the manufacturer’s positioning and use of the vehicle class as well as market definition and market segmentation.

Pure electric vehicle drive motor has DC brush, brushless, permanent magnet, electromagnetic, and then AC stepping motor, etc., their selection is also related to the vehicle configuration, use, and grade. In addition, the speed control of the drive motor is also divided into stepped speed control and step-less speed control, with an electronic speed controller and without a speed controller. The motor has a hub motor, inner rotor motor, single motor drive, multi-motor drive, combined motor drive, etc.

Advantages:

The technology is relatively simple and mature, as long as there is a power supply that can be charged.

Disadvantages:

The energy stored per unit weight of the battery is too small, but also because the battery of the electric car is more expensive, and has not formed an economic scale, so the purchase price is more expensive, as for the use cost, some use price is more expensive than the car, some price is only 1/3 of the car, which mainly depends on the life of the battery and the local price of oil and electricity.

What is a rechargeable car, electric car type introduction-2

Hybrid charging car

Refers to a car that can be powered by at least two types of onboard stored energy from the following.

  • Consumable fuel
  • rechargeable energy/energy storage devices.

They can be classified into three categories based on the form of powertrain structure as follows.

Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle (SHEV):

A hybrid (electric) vehicle in which the driving force of the vehicle comes from the electric motor only. The structure is characterized by the engine driving the generator to generate electricity, and the electric energy is delivered to the electric motor through the motor controller, which drives the vehicle. In addition, the power battery can also provide electric energy to the electric motor alone to drive the car.

Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV):

A hybrid electric vehicle in which the driving force of the vehicle is supplied by the electric motor and the engine simultaneously or separately. The structure features a parallel drive system that can use the engine or electric motor as the power source alone, or use both the electric motor and engine as the power source to drive the vehicle.

Hybrid Hybrid Electric Vehicle (CHEV):

Hybrid (electric) vehicles with both series and parallel drive modes. The structure is characterized by the fact that it can work in series hybrid mode and also in parallel hybrid mode, taking into account the characteristics of both series and parallel types.

(Note: With the development of hybrid electric vehicle technology, the types are not limited to the above, but can also be divided according to other types.)

Those that usually use conventional fuel, along with electric motors, engines to improve low-speed power output and fuel consumption. In the domestic market, the mainstream of hybrid vehicles are gasoline hybrid, while the international market diesel hybrid models are also developing rapidly.

Advantages.

1, the use of hybrid power can be determined by the average power required to determine the maximum power of the internal combustion engine, which is in the optimal working conditions of low fuel consumption and low pollution. Need a high-powered internal combustion engine power shortage, the battery to supplement; less load, the surplus power can be generated to recharge the battery, because the internal combustion engine can continue to work, the battery can be constantly charged, so its journey and ordinary cars.

2、Because of the battery, it is very convenient to recover the energy when braking, when going downhill and when idling.

3、In busy urban areas, the internal combustion engine can be turned off and driven by the battery alone to achieve “zero” emissions.

4、With the internal combustion engine, it is very convenient to solve the problems encountered by pure electric vehicles, such as air conditioning, heating, and defrosting, which consume a lot of energy.

5、The existing gas station can be used for refueling without further investment.

6、It can keep the battery in good working condition, without over-charging and over-discharging, prolonging its service life and reducing costs.

Disadvantages.

Long-distance high-speed driving basically can not save fuel.

What is a rechargeable car, electric car type introduction-2

Fuel cell

The fuel cell is used as the power source of the car. The chemical reaction process of fuel cells does not produce harmful products, so fuel cell vehicles are pollution-free vehicles. The energy conversion efficiency of fuel cells is 2~3 times higher than that of internal combustion engines, so fuel cell vehicles are an ideal vehicle in terms of energy utilization and environmental protection.

Individual fuel cells must be combined into fuel cell groups in order to obtain the necessary power to meet the requirements of vehicle use.

Fuel cell technology has made significant progress in recent years. The world’s leading automobile manufacturers, such as DaimlerChrysler, Ford, Toyota and General Motors, have announced plans to bring fuel cell vehicles to market by 2004. At the present time, prototype fuel cell cars are being tested and fuel cell-powered transportation buses are undergoing demonstration projects in several North American cities. Technical challenges remain in the development of fuel cell vehicles, such as integration of fuel cell packs, improving fuel processors for commercial electric vehicles and auxiliary department car manufacturers are working toward integrating components and reducing component costs, and have made significant progress.

Compared with conventional vehicles, fuel cell vehicles have the following advantages.

  1. Zero or near-zero emissions.
  2. Reduced water pollution from oil leaks.
  3. reduced greenhouse gas emissions.
  4. Improved fuel economy.
  5. Improved engine combustion efficiency.
  6. Smooth and noiseless operation.

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What is a rechargeable car: system structure

Electric drive

An electric vehicle is a vehicle powered by on-board power and driven by an electric motor with wheels that meets all requirements of road traffic and safety regulations. It uses electricity stored in the battery to start. Sometimes 12 or 24 batteries are used in driving the vehicle, and sometimes more are required.

The components of an electric vehicle [3] include an electric drive and control system, a mechanical system such as a drive force transmission, and a working device to accomplish a given task. The electric drive and control system is the core of an electric vehicle, and is the biggest difference from an internal combustion engine vehicle. The electric drive and control system consists of the drive motor, the power supply and the speed control device of the motor. The other devices of electric vehicles are basically the same as those of internal combustion engine vehicles.

Power supply

The power supply provides electrical energy for the drive motor of the electric vehicle, and the motor converts the electrical energy from the power supply into mechanical energy. The most widely used power source is the lead-acid battery, but with the development of electric vehicle technology, the lead-acid battery is gradually replaced by other batteries due to its low energy, slow charging speed and short life. The main power sources under development are sodium-sulfur batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries, lithium batteries, fuel cells, etc. The application of these new power sources opens up a broad prospect for the development of electric vehicles.

Drive motor

The role of the drive motor is to convert the electrical energy from the power supply into mechanical energy to drive the wheels and working devices through the transmission device or directly. However, DC motor has small power, low efficiency and large maintenance workload due to the existence of commutation spark; with the development of motor control technology, it is bound to be gradually replaced by DC brushless motor (BLDCM), switched reluctance motor (SRM) and AC asynchronous motor, such as casingless disk axial field DC series excitation motor.

Speed control

The motor speed control device is set up for the variable speed and direction change of electric vehicles, etc. Its function is to control the voltage or current of the motor and complete the control of the driving torque and rotation direction of the motor.

In the early electric vehicles, the speed control of DC motor was realized by connecting a series resistor or changing the number of turns of the magnetic field coil of the motor. Because the speed regulation is graded, and will produce additional energy consumption or use the motor structure is complicated, now rarely used. The more widely used is thyristor chopper speed control, which controls the motor current by evenly changing the terminal voltage of the motor to realize the stepless speed control of the motor. In the continuous development of electronic power technology, it is also gradually replaced by other power transistor (such as GTO, MOSFET, BTR and IGBT, etc.) chopper speed control device. From the development of technology, along with the application of new drive motors, the speed control of electric vehicles is transformed into the application of DC inverter technology, which will become an inevitable trend.

In the spin-change control of drive motor, DC motor relies on contactor to change the current direction of armature or magnetic field to realize the spin-change of motor, which makes the circuit complicated and less reliable. When an AC asynchronous motor is used, the change of motor rotation only requires changing the phase sequence of the three-phase current of the magnetic field, which simplifies the control circuit. In addition, the use of AC motor and its variable frequency speed control technology makes it easier to control the braking energy recovery of electric vehicles and simpler control circuits.

Transmission device

The role of the electric vehicle transmission device is to transmit the driving torque of the electric motor to the drive shaft of the vehicle. When electric wheel drive is used, most of the components of the transmission device can often be ignored. Because the electric motor can be started with a load, the clutch of a conventional internal combustion engine vehicle is not needed in an electric vehicle. Because the direction of rotation of the drive motor can be changed by circuit control, electric vehicles do not need the reverse gear in the transmission of an internal combustion engine vehicle. When the stepless speed control of the electric motor is used, the transmission of a conventional car can be ignored in an electric car. When using electric wheel drive, electric vehicles can also omit the differential in the transmission system of conventional internal combustion engines.

Running gear

The function of the driving unit is to turn the driving torque of the electric motor into the force on the ground through the wheels and drive the wheels to travel. It is composed of the same components as other cars, including wheels, tires and suspension.

Steering Unit

The steering device is set up to realize the turning of the car and consists of a steering machine, steering wheel, steering mechanism, and steering wheel. The control forces acting on the steering wheel deflect the steering wheel by a certain angle through the steering mechanism and the steering mechanism to realize the steering of the car. Most electric vehicles are front-wheel steering, while electric forklifts used in an industry often adopt rear-wheel steering. There are mechanical steering, hydraulic steering, and hydraulic power steering for electric vehicles.

Braking device

The braking device of electric vehicles, like other vehicles, is set up for slowing down or stopping the vehicle, and usually consists of a brake and its operating device. In electric vehicles, there is usually an electromagnetic brake device, which can use the control circuit of the driving motor to realize the power generation operation of the motor, so that the energy during deceleration and braking can be converted into the current for charging the battery and thus be recycled. Domestic electric vehicles in high-powered passenger vehicles, to provide air braking equipment have Nelly NAILI sliding vane air compressor, mainly compressed air braking method.

Working device

The working device is specially set up for the industrial electric vehicle to complete the operation requirements, such as the lifting device of the electric forklift, door frame, fork, etc. The lifting of forks and the tilting of the door frame are usually done by the hydraulic system driven by an electric motor.

What is a rechargeable car, electric car type introduction-2

What is a rechargeable car: charging equipment

The driving electric energy of an electric motor comes from an onboard rechargeable battery or other energy storage device. Most the vehicles are driven directly by electric motors, some of them have electric motors in the engine compartment, and some of them directly use the wheels as the rotors of four electric motors, and the difficulty lies in the electric power storage technology.

Electric motor drive electricity, itself does not emit harmful gases that pollute the atmosphere, even if converted to power plant emissions by the electricity consumed, other than sulfur and particulates, other pollutants are significantly reduced.

Electric vehicles can also make full use of the surplus electricity charging in the evening when the electricity consumption is low, so that the power generation equipment can be fully utilized day and night, greatly improving its economic efficiency. It is these advantages that have made the research and application of electric vehicles a “hot spot” in the automotive industry.

Similar to the cell phone charging ICM step wave six-segment charging, with good desulfuration effect, can first activate the battery, and then maintenance type fast charging, with timing, full alarm, computer fast charging, password control, self-identifying voltage, multiple protection, four-way output, and other functions, supporting universal output interface, can be fast charging of all-electric vehicles. Shopping malls, supermarkets, hospitals, parking lots, community entrances, roadside kiosks, and other public places.

In car charging network construction mode, in the charging facilities to promote the process, the urgent need to break through the difficult problem is the charging service network distribution. The electric power sector relies on the existing parking facilities to build micro-grid, distributed and integrated charging stations that can be charged and exchanged according to local conditions, which can avoid the two shortcomings of the charging mode: one is the long charging time and the other is the limited parking environment.

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