The LCD display, for the general masses, is no longer a difficult noun. And it is another after semiconductor could create a large number of emerging technology products of the business turnover, more because of its features, thin so it than using the application scope of the cathode ray tube (CRT, cathode ray tube) display made by more wider.
As I mentioned earlier, liquid-crystal displays (LCDs) refers to a bunch of produced by using the LCD display. Now for LCD displays the name is directed mostly used in notebook computers, or desktop computer applications display. Is the thin film transistor TFT LCD display. Abbreviation of TFT LCD. This kind of display form has two main characteristics it, one is a thin film transistor, the other is LCD itself. Let's talk about the LCD itself.
We usually think of substances like water has three states, solid-liquid, and gas. The three states of material actually are for water, for different material, a different state may exist.
As we want to talk about liquid crystal state is concerned, it is a state between solid and liquid, actually, this kind of state is only part of the material of a kind of phase change process (see figure 1), as long as the material has the above process, namely the state exists between solid and liquid, physicist called liquid crystal.
This type of LCD was first discovered, had spent more than one hundred years ago. In 1888 AD, the Austrian botanist Friedrich Reinitzer, found in the observation from the plant refined out of benzoic acid cholesterol (cholesteryl benzoate) found that when the melting behavior of the compound heated to 145.5 ℃, Solid can melt, presents a kind of solid phase and liquid phase between the half gonorrhea melt flow of the liquid. This situation will always maintain ℃ temperature rise to 178.5 degrees, to form a clear isotropic liquid (isotropic liquid).
The next year, in 1889, the study of thermodynamic equilibrium and the phase transfer German physicist O.L Ehmann, compounds for a more detailed analysis of this. He found that under the polarizing microscope, The half of the viscous liquid gonorrhea liquid compounds with different parts peculiar to the crystal birefringence (birefringence) of the optical properties, namely, optical interphase (optically anisotropic). It will be a name to this as the liquid crystal. Since then, scientists will be the nature of this new discovery, known as the fourth state material - LCD (liquid crystal). It at a specific temperature range can have the characteristics of the liquid and solid at the same time.
General with water, solid lattice in heating because it is over, began to heat and destroy the lattice, when the temperature exceeds melting point will be dissolved into a liquid. And cause the type of liquid crystal is different (see figure 2), when the solid heat does not directly into the liquid, will be dissolved to form a liquid crystal state. When you continue heating, it will only then dissolved into a liquid (isotropic liquid). This is called secondary dissolution phenomena. The liquid crystal state, as the name implies, it will be a solid lattice and the liquid. When the liquid crystal was found, because of a lot of more phyletic, In 1922, the results observed by g. Friedel with a polarizing microscope divided liquid crystals into Nematic Smectic and Cholesteric categories. However, if they were classified according to the order of molecular arrangement (see figure 3), they could be divided into the following four categories:
Its structure is composed of liquid crystal molecules stick together, forming a layer structure. It's every layer of the molecular long axis direction parallel to each other. And the long axis direction for each layer plane is vertical or a tilt Angle. Due to its structure is very similar to crystals, so they are called phase. The order parameter S (the order parameter) tend to be 1. Type in layered crystal layer and interlayer bonding can fracture because of temperature, so the layer and interlayer sliding more easily. But each layer within the molecular bonding is stronger, so it is not easy to be interrupted. Therefore in the context of the monolayer, Its arranged orderly and viscosity is bigger. If we use the macroscopic phenomenon to describe the physical properties of liquid crystal, we can make a group of regional average points as the liquid crystal molecules are pointing in the direction of the arrow (director), which is the direction of a group of liquid crystal molecules regional average. And with lamellar liquid crystal, because of its structure, the liquid crystal molecules will cambium-like so can point to a vector of different classification of the different lamellar liquid crystal again. When the long axis of the liquid crystal molecules are vertical stand,Call it "Sematic A phase." if stand long axis direction of the liquid crystal molecules have some Angle of tilt (tilt), call it "Sematic C phase". In A, C and other letters to name, which was discovered in accordance with the order to address, and so on, there should be A "Semantic phase B is." but later found A deformation phase B is C phase, And the liquid crystal molecules in the structure layer by layer, in addition to each layer of liquid crystal molecules have tilt Angle, the tilt Angle between layer by layer will form a helical structure.
Nematic is a Greek word, the word mean in the thread is the same with English. Mainly because with the naked eye to observe the liquid crystal, it looks like silk pattern. The liquid crystal molecules on the space of the regular arrangement of one dimension, all rod long axis of the liquid crystal molecules will choose a particular direction (that is, pointing vector) as the main shaft and arranged parallel to each other. And don't like lamellar liquid crystal has a layered structure. Compared with the layer column type liquid crystal alignment is no order, That is to say, its order parameter S is smaller than the lamellar liquid crystal, and its viscosity is smaller, so it is easier to flow (its flow mainly comes from the free movement of molecules in the long axis direction). Linear liquid crystal is the common TFT liquid crystal display TN(Twisted nematic) type liquid crystal.
Most of the source of the name, because they are generated by the derivative of the cholesterol. But some without cholesterol structure of LCD with this liquid crystal phase. This kind of liquid crystal as shown in figure 5, if it is a layer of a layer to separate, would very much like linear LCD. But look at the Z-axis, may find it pointing in the direction of the arrow will with layers and layers of different distribution, like a spiraling when the pointing vector rotate 360 degrees for molecular layer thickness is called a pitch. Because of its every layer like linear LCD, so also known as Chiral nematic phase. In terms of cholesterol crystal, and pointing in the direction vector of the vertical distribution of liquid crystal molecules, due to the different point to vector, will have the different optical or electrical differences, thus has produced different features.
If we are according to the molecular weight of high and low points can be divided into liquid crystal polymer (polymer liquid crystal, the polymer in many of the liquid crystal molecules) and low molecular liquid crystal. This kind of classification of TFT LCD belongs to the application of the low molecular liquid crystal. If the reasons for the formation of liquid crystal state, because it can be divided into type temperature formation of liquid crystal state to a liquid crystal (thermotropic), and because of the concentration and the formation of a liquid crystal state type lyotropic liquid crystal (lyotropic). In the classification of the mentioned before, Lamellar liquid crystal and liquid crystal of the linear type liquid crystal to cause the more common, as the temperature changes and form liquid crystal state. For the lyotropic liquid crystal, we need to consider the situation of molecules dissolved in a solvent. When the concentration is low, the molecular and mixed and disorderly, which are distributed in the solvent of isotropic solution, but when higher concentration is greater than a certain critical concentration, because the molecule has no enough space to form mixed and disorderly, the distribution of molecular began to gather to form part of the rules,To reduce the space of the block. Therefore form different sex (anisotropic). The solution so types lyotropic liquid crystal molecules in the appropriate solvents reaches a certain critical concentration, the formation of liquid crystal state. Type lyotropic liquid crystal is one of the best examples that is soap. When soap bubbles in the water will not be at once into a liquid, and the bubble in the water for a long time, after the formation of white matter, is its liquid crystal state.
Due to the structure of the liquid crystal molecules for different parties (Anisotropic), so caused by the photoelectric effect will vary because of different direction, in short, that is, the liquid crystal molecules in the dielectric coefficient and refractive index, and so on photoelectric properties have different sex, so we can use these properties to change the intensity of the incident light, so that the formation of gray-scale, to apply on the display component. We'll discuss below, is one of the characteristics of liquid crystal belongs to the optical and electrical related, about the following items:
We dielectric coefficient can be separated into two directions respectively is epsilon / / (and point to parallel component) and epsilon coming (a component perpendicular to the pointing vector). When the epsilon / / > epsilon coming then called the dielectric coefficient of different parts of LCD, can be used in parallel coordination. And epsilon / / < epsilon is called the dielectric coefficient of the different part coming negative type of LCD, only can be used in vertical coordination will need the photoelectric effect. When the applied electric field, the liquid crystal molecules will vary with dielectric coefficient is positive or negative,To determine whether the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules is parallel or perpendicular to the electric field, to determine whether the light penetrates. Now on most commonly used type TN LCD TFT LCD belongs to the dielectric coefficient are type liquid crystal. When the dielectric coefficient of square difference Δ epsilon (= epsilon / / - epsilon) coming, the greater the LCD of the critical voltage (threshold voltage) will be smaller. So the LCD can be in the low voltage operation.
Liquid crystal molecules are also known as heterotropic crystals because they are mostly formed from rod-like or saucer-like molecules, and thus have different physical properties that are parallel to or perpendicular to the long axis of the molecule. Like the dielectric perp, the refractive index is also divided into vectors perpendicular to and parallel to the vector, namely, n // and n perpendicular to each other.
In addition, for uniaxial crystal, there are two different definitions of refraction coefficient, one is no, which refers to the refraction coefficient of ordinary ray, so it is shortened to no, and ordinary ray refers to the electric field component of its light wave is perpendicular to the optical axis, and the other is ne, which refers to the refraction coefficient of extraordinary ray. The extraordinary ray is referred to as the light of the electric field component parallel to the optical axis. At the same time, it defines the birefringence (birefringence) Δ n = no - no for the above two refractive index difference.
In accordance with the described above, the lamellar liquid crystal, linear liquid crystal, and LCD for cholesterol levels, because of its long liquid crystal molecules like a stick, so point to the direction of the vector and the molecular long axis parallel. To be defined with reference to the refraction coefficient of single optical axis crystal, it will have two refractive index, respectively is perpendicular to the direction of long axis of the liquid crystal n coming (= ne) and parallel to the long axis of the liquid crystal direction n / / (= no), so when the incident light liquid crystal, will be affected by two refractive indexes, cause in vertical long axis of the liquid crystal and LCD long axis parallel to the direction of the speed of light will be different.
If with the molecular long axis parallel to the direction of light speed, when less than perpendicular to the speed of the molecular long axis direction, which means that parallel the molecular long axis direction of refractive index is greater than the vertical direction of the refractive index (because the refractive index is inversely proportional to the speed of light), is the one - no > 0. So the birefringence Δ n > 0, we think that it is called optics is a type of LCD, and lamellar liquid crystal and LCD are all belong to the optical is almost linear LCD. If the light of the parallel to the direction of the long axis was faster, On behalf of the flat to the governor of the axis of the refractive index is less than the vertical direction, so the birefringence Δ n < 0. We call it is the optical negative type of LCD. The cholesterol liquid crystal optical negative type of LCD.
For example, the elastic constant (kappa 11, kappa 22, kappa 33) contains the three most important constants: kappa 11 is the elastic constant at splay, kappa 22 is the elastic constant at the twist. Kappa 33 refers to predominate the elastic constants of bending (bend). The other as the coefficient of viscosity (viscosity coefficients and eta), will affect the rotational speed of the liquid crystal molecules with reaction time (response time), its value as small as possible. But this feature is affected by temperature is the largest. In addition to magnetic susceptibility (magnetic susceptibility), but also because of liquid crystal of different sex, Divided into c / / c coming. And the difference of magnetic susceptibility is defined as Δ c = c / / - c coming. In addition to the conductance coefficient (conductivity), and so on the photoelectric properties.
Liquid crystal properties of the most important are the dielectric coefficient and refractive index of liquid crystal. The dielectric coefficient is determined liquid crystal under the influence of the electric field to the characteristics of the liquid crystal molecules, while the refractive index is liquid crystal in the light of its important parameters influencing the light path. The LCD is in using the liquid crystal itself of these features, the appropriate use of voltage, to control the rotation of the liquid crystal molecules, in turn, affect the direction of the light, to form different grayscale, a tool for displaying images. Of course, LCD itself is not alone as the monitor, also need other materials to help, Below, we will introduce the composition of various materials and operating principle of liquid crystal display.
I remember in high school physics class, when to teach with the relevant physical properties of light, to do a lot of physical experiment, the purpose is to prove that light is a wave. And the marching direction of light waves, and the electric field and magnetic field perpendicular to each other. Light itself of the electric field and magnetic field component at the same time also is perpendicular to each other. That is to say with the electric field and magnetic field component direction, each other is two parallel to each other. (see figure 7) and the role of the polarizing film is like a fence, usually will be cut off a component perpendicular to the fence, With a fence parallel component only permitted through. So if we picked up a piece of the light polarization slabs, feel like wearing sunglasses, the light became dark. But if the two pieces of polarizing film ideas together, it won't be the same. When you rotate the two pieces of the relative Angle of the polarizing film, you will find that as the relative Angle different, the brightness of the light will be more and darker. When two polaroids fence Angle perpendicular to each other,Light was completely fail. (see figure 8) and a liquid crystal display is to use this feature. Use upper and lower two pieces of fences between perpendicular slant plate, filled with liquid crystal, recycle electric field control liquid crystal rotation, to change the direction of light, so that different electric field size, can form different gray-scale brightness. (see figure 9)
The upper and lower two layers of glass are mainly to grip the LCD with. Below the glass layer with Thin film transistor (thin film transistor, TFT), while the layer above the glass with a Color filter (Color filter). If you notice (see figure 3), these two pieces of glass in contact with the side of the LCD, not smooth, but with jagged grooves. The main purpose of the groove with the hope of a long rod, liquid crystal molecules will line up along the grooves. In this way, Liquid crystal molecules are arranged neatly. Because if it is smooth and flat, the arrangement of the liquid crystal molecules will not neat, cause light scattering, form a light-leaking phenomenon. In fact, this is just a theory that told us to put the glass and LCD interface, complete processing so that the arrangement of liquid crystal has a certain order. But in the actual manufacturing process, and can not be with such a groove, the distribution of glass is made usually in glass coating on the surface layer of the PI (polyimide), and then a cloth to do the action of friction (rubbing), In order to make the surface molecules of PI no longer be scattered and arranged in a fixed and uniform direction, this layer of PI is called the coordination membrane, and its function is just like the grooves in the glass in FIG. 3, which provides the interface conditions for the uniform arrangement of liquid crystal molecules and allows the liquid crystals to be arranged in a predetermined order.
We can know from figure 10, when there is no applied voltage between the upper and lower two pieces of glass, the arrangement of LCD will be in accordance with the match to the membrane of the upper and lower two pieces of glass. For TN type of LCD, and match to the film's point of view of the poor to 90 degrees. (see figure 9) so the liquid crystal molecules are arranged by the up and down automatically rotate 90 degrees when the incident light passes through the upper polarizing film, the polarization of light waves will only order direction. Through the liquid crystal molecules, due to the liquid crystal molecules rotate for 90 degrees, so when the waves reach the lower polarizing film, the polarization direction of the light just turned 90 degrees. The polarizing film of the lower and upper polarizing film, 90 - degree Angle is just the differences. (see figure 9) so can smoothly through the light, but if we applied voltage between the upper and lower two pieces of glass, because the type TN LCD for dielectric coefficient of different sex more positive type of LCD (epsilon / / > epsilon coming, represent the parallel direction of dielectric coefficient is larger than the dielectric coefficient of vertical direction, so when the liquid crystal molecules are influenced by electric field, will tend to be parallel to the orientation of the electric field direction.), so we can see from figure 10, At this time, the polarized light wave passing through the upper polarizer will not change the polarization direction when passing through the liquid crystal molecule, so it cannot pass through the lower polarizer.
A: no, no
The so-called NW (Normally white), it is to point to when we don't apply voltage on the LCD panel, we can see the panel is pervious to light, also is bright, so-called Normally white. But on the other hand, when we don't apply voltage on the LCD panel if the panel is not pervious to light, the look is black, it's called NB (Normally black). We have just mentioned in figure 9 and figure 10 all belongs to the configuration of NW, also we can know from figure 11, For type TN LCD, located in the upper and lower glass is perpendicular to the membrane, and the difference of NB and NW just lies in the relative position of polarizing film is different. For NB, the fluctuation of the polarizing film polarity is parallel to each other. So when the NB no applied voltage, the light will be because the polarity of the LCD to rotate 90 degrees to be pervious to light. Why there are NW and NB these two kinds of a different configuration of the polarizing film? Mainly for different applications. Commonly used in a desktop computer or notebook computer, most of the NW configuration. That's because, if you notice, generally the use of computer software environment, you will find that most of the entire screen is a bright spot, that is to say, computer software for the application of white background and black text. Since on the point of the majority, using NW is more convenient, of course. Also because the NW window does not need to add the voltage, the average will compare save electricity. In turn, said that the application of the NB environment mostly belongs to the screen for the application of black.
The STN LCD and TN LCD are very similar in structure, the main difference between TN LCD, the arrangement of the liquid crystal molecules, the rotation angle from top to bottom. A total of 90 degrees and type the STN LCD liquid crystal molecules are arranged, the rotation angle will be greater than 180 degrees, usually is 270 degrees. (see figure 12) because of its rotation Angle is different, its characteristics with different. We from figure 13 TN type and type the STN LCD voltage of the transmittance curve can know, when the voltage is low, the light penetration rate is very high. A high voltage, the light of the penetration rate is very low. So they belong to the Normal White polaroids configuration. When the voltage in the middle position, the change of type TN LCD curve is flat, and the change of the STN LCD type curve is steep. So in TN type LCD, when transmittance change from 90% to 10%, corresponding to the voltage difference is larger than the STN LCD. We mentioned before, in the liquid crystal display, The different characteristics of TN and STN will result in TN type LCD, which has more grayscale changes than STN type LCD, so generally TN type LCD has 6~8 bits of changes.It is 64 ~ 256 gray-scale changes. Type the STN LCD for a maximum of 4 bits are only 16 order of gray-scale changes. In addition, the STN type and TN LCD has a different places is the reaction time (response time) general type the STN LCD it's response time to type in more than 100 ms and TN LCD its response time is 30 ~ 50 ms as shown in the image change quickly for the STN LCD type ghosting effect phenomenon is easy to happen.
TFT LCD Chinese translation of the name is called a thin film transistor liquid crystal display, from the beginning, we mentioned LCD voltage control is needed to produce gray. And the use of a thin-film transistor to generate the voltage, to control the transition of liquid crystal display, is called a TFT LCD. From the point of the cross-section structure of figure 8, between upper and lower two layers of glass, with LCD, will form a parallel plate capacitor, we call it the CLC (capacitor of liquid crystal). Its size is about 0.1 m3, But on the practical application, the capacitance and unable to keep the voltage to the next time to update the data in the picture. That is to say, when TFT good to the capacitor charging power, it is impossible to maintain voltage, until the next TFT this point charge again. (in general of 60 Hz screen update frequency, need time to keep about 16 ms.) as a result, there were changes in voltage, displayed gray-scale is not correct. Therefore generally on the design of the panel, will add a storage capacitor CS (storage capacitor is about 0.5 pF). So charged electric voltage can keep until the next update screen. But the right, long on the glass TFT itself, just use a transistor to make the switch. Its main work is to determine the LCD source voltage on the driver whether to charge to this point. As for this point more charge to high voltage, so as to show how the gray-scale. It is outside of the LCD source driver.
If you have a chance, take a magnifying glass, close to the LCD screen. You will find that as shown in figure 9 shows. We know that the red, blue and green, is the so-called primary colors. That is to say, by using the three kinds of color, can produce a variety of different colors. A lot of flat-panel displays this principle is used to show the color. We put the RGB 3 kinds of color, is divided into independent three points, each has different gray-scale changes, then the three neighboring RGB display point, as the basic unit of a display, Pixel is that this a pixel, and can have different color changes. Then for a need for a 1024 * 768 resolution display screen, we just let the composition of the flat panel display with 1024 * 768 pixels, can show a picture of the right. In figure 9, each point between the Black part of RGB is called the Black matrix. We can found that looking back on it in figure 8Black matrix is mainly used to cover do not intend to previous to light part. Such as some ITO walk the line, or Cr/Al walk the line or are part of a TFT. This is why we in figure 9, the highlight of each RGB, it seems, is not a rectangle, and also on the top left corner is a piece of black matrix cover part, this part of a black missing Angle is the location of the TFT.
Figure 10 shows the common arrangement of color filters. Stripe is most commonly used in OA products, such as laptops, desktop computers, etc. Why is stripe used in this application? More often than not, the reason is now software is the Windows interface. That is to say, we can see the screen content, is composed of a pile of boxes of various sizes. The strips, just can make the edge of the box, look more straight, and there won't be a straight line, look have the feeling of burrs or serrated. But if it is applied in the AV products, just not the same. Probably because of the TV signal is a character, the character of the line is not straight, the contour is a mostly irregular curve. So in the beginning, Use Mosaic arrangement used in AV products is (Mosaic, or called arranged diagonally). But the latest AV products, more have been improved to using triangle arrangement (triangle, or known as the delta). In addition to the above arrangement, still have a kind of arrangement, is called a square arrangement. It is not the same as the first few, it is not three-point to as a pixel, but with four points as a pixel. And just four points are combined to form a square.
In the CRT screen, it is using high-speed electron gun emits electrons, hit the phosphors on the silver screen, so as to produce the light, to show the picture. LCD itself, however, can only control the brightness of the light through, no glowing function itself. Therefore, liquid crystal display must be combined with a backplate, to provide high brightness, brightness and uniform distribution of the light source. We can see in figure 14, of the backplate of the main parts are CCFL (cold cathode tube), reflex plate, guide plate, the prism sheet, Diffuser plate and so on. Tubes are the main light-emitting parts, by a light guide, everywhere. The light distribution and baffle will be limited only to the TFT LCD light direction. Finally, by prism sheet and help diffuser, the light evenly distributed to all areas, provide TFT LCD a bright light. While TFT LCD is borrowed by the rotation of the voltage-controlled liquid crystal, control through the brightness of the light, so as to form different grayscale.
Another box in figure 14 glue and spacer structure of two kinds of ingredients. The box adhesive USES is to make the LCD panel in the upper and lower two layers of glass, to be able to stick closely and to provide panel of liquid crystal molecules, cut off from the outside world, so the box plastic as its name suggests, is around and around in the panel to the liquid crystal molecules box limited to within a panel. The spacer is mainly provided two-layer glass support, it must be distributed evenly on the glass, or a part but uneven distribution cause spacer gathered together, it will block the light, It is also unable to maintain the appropriate gap between the upper and lower glass, which will lead to uneven distribution of electric field and affect the performance of the crystal grayscale.
A very important specification of LCD is brightness, and the most important factor to determine the brightness is the opening rate. What is the opening rate? Is simple light can pass through the effective area proportion. 17, let's look at the picture to the left of figure 17 is a liquid crystal display from directly above or below the past structure. When the light is emitted through the backplate, not all of the light can be through the panel, like for LCD source driver chip and the gate driver chip signal line, and TFT itself, the stored voltage is the use of storage capacity, etc. These places besides incomplete pervious to light, but also because of the light through these places is not under voltage control, to display the correct gray-scale, so have to use the black matrix to cover, in order to avoid interference to other correct brightness of the light area. So the effective area of the previous to light, it's just like figure 17 shows area on the right. This piece of the effective area of the previous to light and the ratio of the total area is called the opening rate.
When the light is emitted from the backlight plate, it will pass through the polarizer, glass, liquid crystal, color filter, etc. It is assumed that the penetration rate of each part is as follows:
Polarizer: 50%(because it only allows polarized light waves in one direction)
Glass: 95%(you need to calculate the top and bottom two pieces)
Opening rate: 50%(only half of the effective light transmission area)
Color filter: 27%(assume that the material itself has a penetration rate of 80%, but since the filter itself is painted with color, only light waves of that color can be allowed to pass through. For RGB primary colors, only one of the three colors can be allowed to pass through. Therefore, only one-third of the brightness is left.
In terms of the above penetration rate, only 6% of the light from the backlight plate will be left, which is really a poor amount.